Golang IO (一)

什么是IO?

I/O输入/输出(Input/Output),分为IO设备和IO接口两个部分。在POSIX兼容的系统上,例如Linux系统 [1] ,I/O操作可以有多种方式,比如DIO(Direct I/O),AIO(Asynchronous I/O,异步I/O),Memory-Mapped I/O(内存映射I/O)等,不同的I/O方式有不同的实现方式和性能,在不同的应用中可以按情况选择不同的I/O方式。

https://baike.baidu.com/item/IO/5918?fr=aladdin

Golang中的IO

Golang中的IO我们可以用下面的接口来总结

// Reader is the interface that wraps the basic Read method.
//
// Read reads up to len(p) bytes into p. It returns the number of bytes
// read (0 <= n <= len(p)) and any error encountered. Even if Read
// returns n < len(p), it may use all of p as scratch space during the call.
// If some data is available but not len(p) bytes, Read conventionally
// returns what is available instead of waiting for more.
//
// When Read encounters an error or end-of-file condition after
// successfully reading n > 0 bytes, it returns the number of
// bytes read. It may return the (non-nil) error from the same call
// or return the error (and n == 0) from a subsequent call.
// An instance of this general case is that a Reader returning
// a non-zero number of bytes at the end of the input stream may
// return either err == EOF or err == nil. The next Read should
// return 0, EOF.
//
// Callers should always process the n > 0 bytes returned before
// considering the error err. Doing so correctly handles I/O errors
// that happen after reading some bytes and also both of the
// allowed EOF behaviors.
//
// Implementations of Read are discouraged from returning a
// zero byte count with a nil error, except when len(p) == 0.
// Callers should treat a return of 0 and nil as indicating that
// nothing happened; in particular it does not indicate EOF.
//
// Implementations must not retain p.
type Reader interface {
	Read(p []byte) (n int, err error)
}

// Writer is the interface that wraps the basic Write method.
//
// Write writes len(p) bytes from p to the underlying data stream.
// It returns the number of bytes written from p (0 <= n <= len(p))
// and any error encountered that caused the write to stop early.
// Write must return a non-nil error if it returns n < len(p).
// Write must not modify the slice data, even temporarily.
//
// Implementations must not retain p.
type Writer interface {
	Write(p []byte) (n int, err error)
}

在 golang 官方给出了 IO 包的一些介绍

Package io provides basic interfaces to I/O primitives. Its primary job is to wrap existing implementations of such primitives, such as those in package os, into shared public interfaces that abstract the functionality, plus some other related primitives. Because these interfaces and primitives wrap lower-level operations with various implementations, unless otherwise informed clients should not assume they are safe for parallel execution.

https://pkg.go.dev/io

io.Reader 代表一个可以从中读取字节流的实体,io.writer 代表一个可以向其写入字节流的实体

而Golang 内置的 IO 包有: io、os、ioutil、bufio、bytes、strings

IO读取

我们可以直接看看官方包中的 io.ReadAll

// ReadAll reads from r until an error or EOF and returns the data it read.
// A successful call returns err == nil, not err == EOF. Because ReadAll is
// defined to read from src until EOF, it does not treat an EOF from Read
// as an error to be reported.
func ReadAll(r Reader) ([]byte, error) {
	b := make([]byte, 0, 512)  // b len为0 cap
	for {
		if len(b) == cap(b) {
			// Add more capacity (let append pick how much).
			b = append(b, 0)[:len(b)]
		}
		n, err := r.Read(b[len(b):cap(b)])
		b = b[:len(b)+n]
		if err != nil {
			if err == EOF {
				err = nil
			}
			return b, err
		}
	}
}

循环读取,知道读取到文件尾返回 EOF

IO写入

这里写入没什么好介绍的,略过了

常见的IO实现

  • os.Stdin, os.Stdout, os.Stderr 直接与终端交互
  • os.File
  • strings.Reader
  • bytes.Reader
  • bytes.Buffer
  • bufio.Reader/Writer 带缓冲
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